2 min read

#### Operators

Operators Operators combine operands into expressions. Nice. I love a concise description/definition. Especially after the confusion that was yesterday’s post about loose and exact unification. Expression = UnaryExpr | Expression binary_op Expression . UnaryExpr = PrimaryExpr | unary_op UnaryExpr . binary_op = "||" | "&&" | rel_op | add_op | mul_op . rel_op = "==" | "!=" | "<" | "<=" | ">" | ">=" . add_op = "+" | "-" | "|" | "^" .

3 min read

#### Exact & loose type unification

Type unification … Unification uses a combination of exact and loose unification depending on whether two types have to be identical, assignment-compatible, or only structurally equal. The respective type unification rules are spelled out in detail in the Appendix. The precise definitions of “exact” and “loose” unification are buried in the appendix, and depend on the specific types involved. In general, I think it’s not terribly inaccurate to say that exact unification applies when the two types are identical, for composite types with identical structure (i.

5 min read

#### Type unification

A couple of days ago we saw the spec reference the concept of “type unification”. Today we start through that explanation…. Type unification Type inference solves type equations through type unification. Type unification recursively compares the LHS and RHS types of an equation, where either or both types may be or contain bound type parameters, and looks for type arguments for those type parameters such that the LHS and RHS match (become identical or assignment-compatible, depending on context).

2 min read

#### Successful type inference

Today we finish up the discussion on type inference. So we’ve now Type inference … If the two phases are successful, type inference determined a type argument for each bound type parameter: Pk ➞ Ak A type argument Ak may be a composite type, containing other bound type parameters Pk as element types (or even be just another bound type parameter). In a process of repeated simplification, the bound type parameters in each type argument are substituted with the respective type arguments for those type parameters until each type argument is free of bound type parameters.

2 min read

#### Precedence of type inference

Type inference … Type inference gives precedence to type information obtained from typed operands before considering untyped constants. Therefore, inference proceeds in two phases: The type equations are solved for the bound type parameters using type unification. If unification fails, type inference fails. Type unification comes up next in the spec, so we’ll learn exactly what that means soon. For each bound type parameter Pk for which no type argument has been inferred yet and for which one or more pairs (cj, Pk) with that same type parameter were collected, determine the constant kind of the constants cj in all those pairs the same way as for constant expressions.

2 min read

#### The many type equations

Type inference … Type inference supports calls of generic functions and assignments of generic functions to (explicitly function-typed) variables. So just to call out this point, made in passing: You cannot assign the result of a generic function to a generic, non-instantiated type, even if inferrence should be intuitive. Do demonstrate: type S[T ~int | ~float64] struct { Value T } func sum[V ~int | ~float32](a, b V) V { return a + b } // cannot use generic type S[T ~int | ~float64] without instantiation x := S{ Value: sum(int(1), int(2)), } Even though the type returned from sum() is obviously int, we cannot do this assignment.

2 min read

#### Bound type parameters

Type inference … Given a set of type equations, the type parameters to solve for are the type parameters of the functions that need to be instantiated and for which no explicit type arguments is provided. These type parameters are called bound type parameters. For instance, in the dedup example above, the type parameters P and E are bound to dedup. An argument to a generic function call may be a generic function itself.

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17 min read

#### Error handling in Go web apps shouldn't be so awkward

A useful error handling pattern for Go REST, gRPC, and other services.

3 min read

#### Type equations

I don’t have a lot to expand on in this section, except to offer a pre-amble about some technical terms and symbols that won’t be familiar to everyone: ≡ is a symbol from mathematics that means “identical to”. It’s similar to = which we’re all famliar with, but “stricter”. The spec uses variants of this symbol in some following equations, so it’s nice to understand what the symbol means originally. ≡A means “are assignable to each other”, as in: X ≡A Y means “X is assignable to Y and Y is assignable to X” ≡C means “satisifes constraint”, as in: X ≡C ~int means “X satisfies constraint ~int”.

2 min read

#### Type inference

We just covered instantiations, and learned that it is often possible to infer generic types. Nowe we’ll examine how that mechanism works. This bit gets a bit into the weeds. You’ll be forgiven if you choose to skip over this. Type inference A use of a generic function may omit some or all type arguments if they can be inferred from the context within which the function is used, including the constraints of the function’s type parameters.

2 min read

#### Partial type argument lists

Instantiations … A partial type argument list cannot be empty; at least the first argument must be present. The list is a prefix of the full list of type arguments, leaving the remaining arguments to be inferred. Loosely speaking, type arguments may be omitted from “right to left”. func apply[S ~[]E, E any](s S, f func(E) E) S { … } f0 := apply[] // illegal: type argument list cannot be empty f1 := apply[[]int] // type argument for S explicitly provided, type argument for E inferred f2 := apply[[]string, string] // both type arguments explicitly provided var bytes []byte r := apply(bytes, func(byte) byte { … }) // both type arguments inferred from the function arguments Let’s demonstrate this by refering to the example from yesterday.